Off grid-2


An Off-Grid building does not rely on the municipal water supply, sewer, natural gas, electrical power grid, or any other utility service.

Instead, water is sourced on-site through a well and /or harvested rainwater; waste water is treated on-site through a conventional septic system, composting toilets, and /or a constructed wetland or bioswale; and electricity is generated on site by solar photovoltaics and /or wind turbines.

Winter heating and summer cooling & ventilation are best augmented by passive strategies such as: air-tightness, good thermal insulation, glazing placed for winter solar gains, thermal blankets at windows, and the use of thermal mass, which can jointly reduce the heating energy demand; and reflective roof surfaces, air-tightness, good thermal insulation, low proportion of glazing, outdoor summer solar shading, the use of thermal mass, and natural & night ventilation, which can jointly make a cooling system redundant.

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